Light & Shadows

Light & Shadows

Activity

Materials Needed

 

 Introductory Activity

 

  • White wall
  • Shadow figurines printables (available for download)
  • Different coloured thin translucent plastic bags (or coloured cellophane paper if you have)
  • Ice cream sticks or chopsticks
  • Glue or string
  • Double-sided tape
  • Blu-tack
  • White paper or wax paper
  • Toy blocks that you may have at home
  • Other toys that you may have:
    • Vehicles
    • People
    • Animals

 

 

 Focused Activity

 

 

 

 

 

  • Flashlight
  • Opaque items found at home: wrapping paper/cardboard
  • Translucent items found at home: fabric softener sheet/lace curtain
  • Transparent items: glass candle holder/a clear drinking glass bottle/clear plastic sheet
  • Light prediction sheet (available for download)
  • Light and shadow word cards - transparent, opaque, translucent (available for download)

 

 

 Bonus Challenge I

 

  • Paper plate
  • Paint brush
  • Compass
  • Paints (any color)
  • Scissors
  • Skewer
  • Pencil
  • Glue
  • Clock face template (available for download)

 

 

 Sensory Play

 

  • Clear lidded container
  • Open clear container (can be stacked on top of lidded container)
  • Fairy lights
  • Salt
  • Food colouring of your choice
  • Cotton buds
  • Alphabet cards (available for download)
  • Pre-writing lines cards (available for download)

 

Introduction : Light & Shadows

Objectives

  1. Understand that objects form shadows when light is casted upon them

  2. Create a scene using the materials provided and engage in shadow puppet play

 

Materials Needed

  • White wall

  • Shadow figurines printables (available for download)

  • Different coloured thin translucent plastic bags (or coloured cellophane paper if you have)

  • Ice cream sticks or chopsticks

  • Glue or string

  • Double-sided tape

  • Blu-tack

  • White paper or wax paper

  • Toy blocks that you may have at home

  • Other toys that you may have:

    • Vehicles

    • People

    • Animals

 

Directions

Prep:

  • To make the colour frames:

    • Glue 4 ice-cream sticks or chopsticks together to form a square

    • You may also use string to tie the corners together if glue is not available

    • From your plastic bags, cut out a square the size of your ice-cream sticks frame

    • Attach the plastic square onto your frame using either glue or double-sided tape

    • Make several of these frames using different coloured plastic bags

  • At a blank white wall, paste a large piece of white paper (or several pieces of A4 paper/wax paper) to the floor connecting to that wall

    • This should preferably be at an area where the sunlight comes through brightly to allow for your child to see some shadows

  • Place toy blocks and completed coloured frames at this area

 

Activity:

  • Invite child hold the frames up to the sunlight and see the coloured shadow displayed onto the floor

  • Some discussion points to share with your child:

    • Talk about the different colours and the type

    • Explain that objects create shadows when there is light shining on it from certain angles

    • Point out how certain angles of light make shadows appear shorter or longer and have child experiment with this using the coloured frames

    • Bonus question: Do you think you can see shadows at night?

  • Allow child to arrange the coloured frames on the white paper floor area

  • Demonstrate how the frames can be placed standing up by using blu-tack to stick one edge to the floor

    • Allow child to independently do so for the rest of the coloured frames

  • This will start off construction of a scene (proceed to following activity)

 

Activity 2:

  • The standing coloured frames can represent different items for the scene

    • Allow your child to decide what they could represent

    • Some ideas: buildings, trees, fire, water etc.

  • Complement the play set-up with some toy blocks

  • Encourage child to arrange toy blocks

    • Point out how the shadows of these blocks create a city sky-line silhouette

  • Prompt child to use his/her other toys such as toy vehicles, people or animals

    • Alternatively, you may print and cut out the shadow puppets from the printable provided

  • Use these toys to create a shadow puppet play with the scene created by the coloured frames and toy blocks

 

Focused Activity: Opaque, Translucent & Transparent Experiments

Objectives

  1. Recognize how light interacts with transparent, translucent and opaque materials.

  2. Develop an understanding of light.

  3. Make predictions of outcomes with simple reasoning.

  4. Conduct simple investigations to find out why things happen and how things work.

 

Materials Needed

  • Flashlight

  • Opaque items found at home: wrapping paper/cardboard

  • Translucent items found at home: fabric softener sheet/lace curtain

  • Transparent items: glass candle holder/a clear drinking glass bottle/clear plastic sheet

  • Light prediction sheet (available for download)

  • Light and shadow word cards - transparent, opaque, translucent (available for download)

 

Directions

Prep:

  • Print the light prediction sheet and prediction chart.

  • Place one of three items belonging to the categories of opaque, translucent and transparent on a table.

 

Activity:

  • Provide your child with a flashlight and have him/her observe the characteristics of each object and how it interacts with light. Your child will examine how:

> Opaque materials do not allow light to pass through;

> Translucent materials allow some light to pass through;

> Transparent materials allow some light to pass through.

  • Go over the following items again and demonstrate how light interacts with each. Show the word cards to reinforce the definition of opaque, translucent and transparent.

  • Opaque experiment: Hold up the wrapping paper or other opaque object and ask your child what happens to the light that shines on an opaque object. (Most of it is reflected back into the room and our eyes, but some of it is absorbed by the object).

  • Translucent experiment: Hold up the fabric softener sheet or other translucent object and ask your child what happens to the light that shines on a translucent object? (Most of the light is scattered by the object and then reflected back. Some of the light is absorbed, and some of it passes through the object.) - Ask your child to give evidence from his/her observations to support each of the explanations for what happens to light.

  • Transparent experiment: Hold up the glass or other transparent object and ask your child what happens to light that shines on a transparent object? (Most of it passes through the object, but some light is reflected back to our eyes, which is why we can see the glass.)

  • Extension: have your child brainstorm items around the home that are transparent, translucent, and opaque and record their answers in the prediction sheet provided.

  • Next, they will test their predictions by holding each object up to the light and record their findings on the light prediction sheet provided.

 

Bonus Challenge I: Home-made Sundial 

Objectives

  1. Be aware of patterns and changes that occur in the environment (e.g. time).

  2. Record changes over time through marking a line on the shadow casted over the sundial.

 

Materials Needed

  • Paper plate

  • Paint brush

  • Compass

  • Paints (any color)

  • Scissors

  • Skewer

  • Pencil

  • Glue

  • Clock face template (available for download)

 

Directions

Prep:

  • Show your child pictures of sundials. Explain that sundials are the oldest known instruments for telling time. The surface of a sundial has markings for each hour of daylight. As the Sun moves across the sky, another part of the sundial casts a shadow on these markings. The position of the shadow shows what time it is.

  • Print the clock face template and cut it out. For older children, you may let them cut it out on their own.

 

Activity:

  • Paint the back of the paper plate or leave it plain.

  • Glue the clock face onto the back of the paper plate.

  • Use a skewer/pencil to poke a hole in the center of the paper plate.

  • Stick a pencil through the hole - and head outdoors!

  • Be sure to position the sundial with the “12” pointing north to determine the current time. At this point, you may wish to demonstrate to your child the use of a compass to determine the location of north.

  • Observe the shadow the pencil casted on the place. Check the shadow every hour and draw a solid line over the shadow.

  • Once most of the shadow lines are drawn every hour along with the corresponding numbers (hours), your sundial is ready.

 

 

Sensory Play : Light and Salt Writing Sensory Bin

Objectives

  1. Explore dots, curves and lines

  2. Practice letter-writing skills

 

Materials Needed

  • Clear lidded container

  • Open clear container (can be stacked on top of lidded container)

  • Fairy lights

  • Salt

  • Food colouring of your choice

  • Cotton buds

  • Alphabet cards (available for download)

  • Pre-writing lines cards (available for download)

 

Directions

Prep:

  • Place fairy lights into the clear lidded container and seal it

    • Be sure to switch on the fairy lights before sealing the container

  • Dye the salt with food colouring of your choice:

    • Add a few drops of food colouring to salt and mix till it is fully coloured

  • Pour coloured salt into the second container and then stack it on top of the lidded container

    • Ensure that there is only a thin layer of salt in the second container, just enough to cover the base of the container

    • The light from the fairy lights should shine through the containers and coloured salt

 

Activity 1:

  • Place pre-writing lines cards in the salt container

  • Provide child with a cotton bud

    • Alternatively you may have him/her start off with just using his/her index finger

  • Pick a card and demonstrate drawing the chosen line type in the salt

    • As you draw in the salt container, light from the fairy lights in the container below should shine through to light up the line drawn

  • Allow a child a turn at drawing the line in the salt

  • Repeat with the remaining pre-writing lines

  • Once your child is familiar with all the pre-writing lines, encourage your child to make patterned designs using the lines, curves and dots

  • For extra fun, your child gets to snap a photo for each of his/her salt patterned artwork

 

Activity 2:

  • Introduce the alphabet cards into the salt play

    • Alphabet cards should be introduced in small numbers at each time so as not to overwhelm your child

    • You can start with selecting letters of his/her name before moving on to others

  • For each letter, demonstrate how the letter is drawn

    • Explain how each stroke of the letter is made

  • Allow child to have a turn at writing the letter in the salt

  • As an incentive, with every letter drawn in the salt, your child gets to select a corresponding item or toy with the same beginning sound as the letter and add it into the bin

    • Allow child to interact with the item and the letter in the bin as a way of reinforcement before moving on to the next letter